Friday, April 3, 2009
How dog's training works?
Now a days human and dogs are living together happily giving proper training to their doggy.There are many ways to train dogs and just many trainers who will say that their way is the only "right" way,but the reality is that there are multiple methods that work,and how enjoyable they are for dog and handler.In this article we will explore ideas behind most methods of dog of training and talk about one of the most popular methods today:Clicker Training.
Dog training typically centers on operant conditioning.The first scientist to define this concept was B.F Skinner,who studied the of Russian physiologist Dr. Ivan Pavlov on animal behavior.In Pavlov's groundbreaking study,dogs learned that a stimulus (in this case ,a bell) meant they were about to fed - Pavlov added a third component by ringing a bell before feeding.After a few trials,the dogs learned to associate the bell with being fed and would react by salvating at the sound of the bell in anticipation of their food but without any food present. Since dogs naturally begin salvating when offered food,food is an unconditioned stimulus.No conditioning or special training is necessary to cause the dogs to salvate,which unconditioned response.In contrast,a ringing bell does not normally cause dogs to salvate,they will do so only if they have been conditioned to associate a bell with being fed.Therefore,the bell is a conditioned stimulus.The dog's new reation is a reflex to stimulus and is conditioned response.
Many of us see this today with our own dogs when they break into frenzy of barking at the sound of the doorbell,sometimes even a doorbell on television.In this case,the dog has been conditioned to associate the stimulus of the bell with the imminent arrival of a stranger.
When we see flashing lights or hear a siren behind us while driving,we may reflexively tense up and our heart rate may increase.We have been conditioned to associate the sound of sirens with the unpleasant and stressful experience of getting a ticket.This is classical conditioning.Both animal and people can learn to relate a pair of events and respond to the first in anticipation of the second.This type of learning is passive and involuntary;it occurs without the learner doing anything and often without awareness.
While Pavlop's work dealt with a reflexive reaction to a conditioned stimulus,Skinner become interested in creating a specific behavioral reaction to a stimulus by adding a reinforcer.A reinforcer can be ether a reward or a punisher.A reward is anything thatincreases the frequency of an action;a punisher is anything that decreases it's frequency.
When we are rewared for a certain behavior,we likely are to repeat that behavior.when we are punished for a certain behavior we are likely to stop.This type of learning is active and voluntary;it depends on the action of the learner.
Because the defination of a reinforcer is based on it's effectiveness,it's important to remember that a reward for one person may not be meaningful ,and thus not a reward,for another. Similarly, what is a reward in one contex may not be somewhere else.
If we put a rat into a rectangular box having a liver,it will run radomly at first.When unconciouly caught the liver rat gets food as reward.So rat will continue this task for getting more food.